Course Objectives:

  • To understand the basic concepts and the applications of database systems.
  • To master the basics of SQL and construct queries using SQL.
  • To understand the relational database design principles.
  • To become familiar with the basic issues of transaction processing and concurrency control.
  • To become familiar with database storage structures and access techniques.

Course Outcomes:

  • Demonstrate the basic elements of a relational database management system.
  • Ability to identify the data models for relevant problems.
  • Ability to design entity relationship model and convert entity relationship diagrams into RDBMS and formulate SQL queries on the data.
  • Apply normalization for the development of application software.

UNIT – I Introduction: Database System Applications, Purpose of Database Systems, View of Data,
Database Languages – DDL, DML, Relational Databases, Database Design, Data Storage and Querying, Transaction Management, Database Architecture, Data Mining and Information Retrieval, Specialty Databases, Database Users and Administrators, History of Database Systems. Introduction to Data base design: Database Design and ER diagrams, Entities, Attributes and Entity sets, Relationships and Relationship sets, Additional features of ER Model, Conceptual Design with the ER Model, Conceptual Design for Large enterprises. Relational Model: Introduction to the Relational Model, Integrity Constraints over Relations, Enforcing Integrity constraints, Querying relational data, Logical data base Design: ER to Relational, Introduction to Views, Destroying /Altering Tables and Views.

UNIT – II Relational Algebra and Calculus: Preliminaries, Relational Algebra, Relational calculus – Tuple relational Calculus, Domain relational calculus, Expressive Power of Algebra and calculus. SQL: Queries, Constraints, Triggers: Form of Basic SQL Query, UNION,INTERSECT, and EXCEPT, Nested Queries, Aggregate Operators, NULL values Complex Integrity Constraints in SQL, Triggers and Active Data bases, Designing Active Databases..

UNIT – III Schema Refinement and Normal Forms: Introduction to Schema Refinement, Functional Dependencies-Reasoning about FDs,Normal Forms,Properties of  Decompositions,  Normalization, Schema Refinement in Database Design, Other Kinds of Dependencies.

UNIT – IV Transaction Management: Transactions, Transaction Concept, A Simple Transaction
Model, Storage Structure, Transaction Atomicity and Durability, Transaction Isolation, Serializability, Transaction Isolation and Atomicity Transaction Isolation Levels, Implementation of Isolation Levels.
Concurrency Control: Lock–Based Protocols, Multiple Granularity, Timestamp-Based
Protocols, Validation-Based Protocols, Multiversion Schemes. Recovery System-Failure Classification, Storage, Recovery and Atomicity, Recovery Algorithm, Buffer Management, Failure with loss of nonvolatile storage, Early Lock Release and Logical Undo Operations, Remote Backup systems.

UNIT – V Storage and Indexing: Overview of Storage and Indexing: Data on External Storage, File
Organization and Indexing, Index Data Structures, Comparison of File Organizations. Tree-Structured Indexing: Intuition for tree Indexes, Indexed Sequential Access Method  (ISAM), B+ Trees: A Dynamic Index Structure, Search, Insert, Delete. Hash- Based Indexing: Static Hashing, Extendible hashing, Linear Hashing, Extendible vs. Linear Hashing.


  • Data base Management Systems, Raghu Ramakrishnan, Johannes Gehrke, McGraw Hill Education (India) Private Limited, 3rd Edition. (Part of UNIT-I, UNIT-II, UNIT-III, UNIT-V)
  • Data base System Concepts, A. Silberschatz, Henry. F. Korth, S. Sudarshan, McGraw Hill Education(India) Private Limited l, 6th edition.( Part of UNIT-I, UNIT-IV)


  • Database Systems, 6th edition, R Elmasri, Shamkant B.Navathe, Pearson Education.
  • Database System Concepts, Peter Rob & Carlos Coronel, Cengage Learning.
  • Introduction to Database Management, M. L. Gillenson and others, Wiley Student Edition.
  • Database Development and Management, Lee Chao, Auerbach publications, Taylor & Francis Group. Introduction to Database Systems, C. J. Date, Pearson Education.